LIQUID MEASURE4 Gills = 1 Pint |
MEASURE OF SOLIDARITY1728 Cubic Inches = 1 Cubic Foot |
DRY MEASURE8 Quarts = 1 Peck |

MEASURE OF LENGTH 4 Inches
= 1 Hand |
MEASURE OF
SURFACE144 Square Inches = 1 Square Foot |

**WEIGHT OF GRAIN AND PRODUCE PER BUSHEL**

Article |
Weight in Pounds |
Article |
Weight in Pounds |

Alfalfa | 60 | Malt | 38 |

Apples, Green | 50 | Millet Seed | 50 |

Apples, Dried | 24 | Navy Beans | 60 |

Barley | 48 | Oats | 32 |

Bermuda Grass | 35 | Onions | 52 |

Blue Grass Seed | 22 | Orchard Grass Seed | 14 |

Bran | 20 | Peaches, Green | 48 |

Brome Grass | 41 | Peas, Stock and Green | 60 |

Buckwheat | 52 | Potatoes, Irish | 60 |

Cane Seed | 50 | Potatoes, Sweet | 46 |

Carrots | 50 | Rape Seed | 60 |

Castor Beans | 46 | Red Top Seed | 40 |

Clover Seed | 60 | Rutabagas | 50 |

Corn Shelled | 56 | Rye | 56 |

Corn in Ear, Shucked | 70 | Salt | 50 |

Corn in Ear, with Husks | 74 | Sorghum or Cane Seed | 50 |

Corn Meal | 48 | Soybeans | 60 |

Cotton Seed | 33 | Sunflower | 22 |

Cowpeas | 60 | Sweet Clover | 60 |

Flax Seed | 56 | Timothy Seed | 45 |

Hemp Seed | 44 | Tomatoes | 45 |

Hungarian Seed | 48 | Turnips | 42 |

Kaffir Corn | 56 | Wheat | 60 |

**MISCELLANEOUS TABLE**

196 lbs. flour make 1 barrel 200 lbs. beef or pork make 1 barrel 135 lbs. potatoes make 1 barrel 135 lbs. apples make 1 barrel 280 lbs. salt make 1 barrel 350 lbs. sugar make 1 barrel 100 lbs. nails make a keg 2150.42 Cubic Inches makes 1 bushel 231 Cubic Inches make 1 gallon 43,560 Square Feet make 1 acre 5280 Feet make 1 mile |
128 Cubic Feet make a cord 1 gallon water about 8 1/3 lbs. 1 gallon milk about 8 3/5 lbs. 1 gallon kerosene about 6 1/2 lbs. 1 cubic foot of water about 62 1/2 pounds 1 - 3 inches equals 1 size in measuring boots and shoes 4 inches equals 1 hand in measuring horses 1 link equals 7.92 inches 1 rod equals 25 links, 16 1/2 feet 1 chain equals four rods, 66 feet 1 mile equals 80 chains, 5280 feet |

**QUANTITY OF SEED USED PER ACRE**

Alfalfa | 8 to 15 lbs. | Millet Seed, Missouri | 35 to 50 lbs. |

Buckwheat | 50 to 60 lbs. | Millet Seed, German | 35 to 50 lbs. |

Blue Grass Seed | 25 to 40 lbs. | Millet Seed, Siberian | 20 to 25 lbs. |

Barley | 95 to 100 lbs. | Oats | 60 to 70 lbs. |

Corn | 8 to 11 lbs. | Onion Seed | 10 to 12 lbs. |

Clover Seed, Red | 10 to 15 lbs. | Onion Sets | 10 to 12 lbs. |

Clover Seed, Sappling | 10 to 15 lbs. | Orchard Grass Seed | 25 to 35 lbs. |

Clover Seed, Alfalfa | 15 to 25 lbs. | Potatoes, Irish | 550 to 650 lbs. |

Clover Seed, White | 6 to 8 lbs. | Red Top Seed in Chaff | 25 to 35 lbs. |

Clover Seed, Alsike | 8 to 10 lbs. | Red Top Seed, fancy Solid | 10 to 12 lbs. |

Cane Seed, Broadcast | 50 to 65 lbs. | Rye | 70 to 90 lbs. |

Cane Seed, in Drills | 20 to 30 lbs. | Stock Peas | 50 to 80 lbs. |

Hungarian Grass Seed | 35 to 50 lbs. | Sunflower | 8 to 10 lbs. |

Flax | 55 to 80 lbs. | Sweet Clover | 10 to 15 lbs. |

Hemp | 40 to 60 lbs. | Timothy Seed | 12 to 15 lbs. |

Kaffir Corn | 60 to 75 lbs. | Wheat | 75 to 110 lbs. |

**To Measure Corn in Bins**

To find the number of bushels of grain in a bin, multiply the length by the width by the height, thus ascertaining the number of cubic feet, and deduct one-fifth. For instance, a bin containing 10 cubic feet will hold 8 bushels of grain, 8 being four-fifths of 10.

**To Measure Ear Corn in a Crib**

Ascertain the number of cubic feet and multiply by four, then divide by ten. Most corn in cribs is figured by this rule. However, if the cobs are well filled and the corn is sound and dry and well settled in the crib, divide by 9. If the cobs are not well filled or if the corn is damp or of inferior quality, divide by 11.

**Alternative Method of Measuring Corn in Cribs**

Ear corn of good quality, measured when settled, will hold out at 2 1/2 cubic feet per bushel. Allowance should be made for snapped corn, corn that is poorly husked, or otherwise inferior in quality, which will hold out at more than 2 1/2 cubic feet per bushel.

Rule - At 2 1/2 feet per cubic bushel, divide the cubic feet in crib by 2 1/2, or multiply by 2 and divide by 5.

**Capacity of Round Cribs**

Multiply the square of the diameter by 0.7854; that will be the area of the circular floor. Multiply the area of the floor by the height; that will give the number of cubic feet. Total cubic feet multiplied by 4 and divided by 10 will give approximate number of bushels in a round crib or bin.

**Water
Equivalents Table**

1 acre foot | 43,560 cubic feet | 325,000 gallons |

1 acre foot covers 1 acre of land 1 foot deep

1 cfs (cubic foot per second) | 450 gpm (gallons per minute) |

For 24 hours | 1.983 acre ft. |

For 30 days | 59.50 acre ft. |

An
end gun emitting water to a height of 25 feet above ground can result in a 25
percent loss of water due to evaporation, and acres under an end gun require 25
percent more water. A decrease in
pivot pressure from 40 to 25 pounds per square inch will increase water use
efficiency by 15 to 20 percent. Irrigating
at or near dew point can generate a 10 percent increase in efficiency as opposed
to irrigating during the heat of the day.

Correct
pipe diameter on a pivot system can effect efficiency by as much as 30 to 35
percent. Pressure regulators can
create a 10 to 20 percent increase by maintaining “proper design pressure.”
Worn or wrong-sized orifices can decrease this pressure, and the best
ways to insure “proper design pressure” are the annual pump test and can
test.

Efficient
irrigation protects the environment in many ways, including: