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LIQUID MEASURE

4 Gills = 1 Pint
2 Pints = 1 Quart
4 Quarts = 1 Gallon
31 1/2 gallons = 1 Barrel
54 Gallons = 1 Hogshead
252 Gallons = 1 Tun.

MEASURE OF SOLIDARITY

1728 Cubic Inches = 1 Cubic Foot
27 Cubic Feet = 1 Cubic Yard

DRY MEASURE

8 Quarts = 1 Peck
4 Pecks = 1 Bushel
8 Bushels = 1 Quarter
36 Bushels = 1 Chaldron
1 Bushel = 2150.42 Cubic Inches

MEASURE OF LENGTH

4 Inches = 1 Hand
7.92 Inches = 1 Link
18 Inches = 1 Cubit
12 Inches = 1 Foot
6 Feet = 1 Fathom
3 Feet = 1 Yard
5 1/2 Yards = 1 Rod or Pole
40 Poles 1 Furlong
8 Furlong = 1 Mile
69 1/8 Miles = 1 Degree
1760 Yards or 5280 Feet = 1 Mile

MEASURE OF SURFACE

144 Square Inches = 1 Square Foot
9 Square Feet = 1 Square Yard
30 1/4 Square Yards = 1 Square Rod, Perch or Pole
40 Square Rods = 1 Square Rood
4 Square Roods = 1 Square Acre
Gunter’s Chain = 22 Yards or 100 Links
10 Square Chains = 1 Square Acre
640 Square Acres = 1 Square Mile
272 1/4 Square Feet = 1 Square Rod
43560 Square Feet = 1 Acre

WEIGHT OF GRAIN AND PRODUCE PER BUSHEL

Article Weight in Pounds Article Weight in Pounds
Alfalfa 60 Malt 38
Apples, Green 50 Millet Seed 50
Apples, Dried 24 Navy Beans 60
Barley 48 Oats 32
Bermuda Grass 35 Onions 52
Blue Grass Seed 22 Orchard Grass Seed 14
Bran 20 Peaches, Green 48
Brome Grass 41 Peas, Stock and Green 60
Buckwheat 52 Potatoes, Irish 60
Cane Seed 50 Potatoes, Sweet 46
Carrots 50 Rape Seed 60
Castor Beans 46 Red Top Seed 40
Clover Seed 60 Rutabagas 50
Corn Shelled 56 Rye 56
Corn in Ear, Shucked 70 Salt 50
Corn in Ear, with Husks 74 Sorghum or Cane Seed 50
Corn Meal 48 Soybeans 60
Cotton Seed 33 Sunflower 22
Cowpeas 60 Sweet Clover 60
Flax Seed 56 Timothy Seed 45
Hemp Seed 44 Tomatoes 45
Hungarian Seed 48 Turnips 42
Kaffir Corn 56 Wheat 60

MISCELLANEOUS TABLE

196 lbs. flour make 1 barrel
200 lbs. beef or pork make 1 barrel
135 lbs. potatoes make 1 barrel
135 lbs. apples make 1 barrel
280 lbs. salt make 1 barrel
350 lbs. sugar make 1 barrel
100 lbs. nails make a keg
2150.42 Cubic Inches makes 1 bushel
231 Cubic Inches make 1 gallon
43,560 Square Feet make 1 acre
5280 Feet make 1 mile
128 Cubic Feet make a cord
1 gallon water about 8 1/3 lbs.
1 gallon milk about 8 3/5 lbs.
1 gallon kerosene about 6 1/2 lbs.
1 cubic foot of water about 62 1/2 pounds
1 - 3 inches equals 1 size in measuring boots and shoes
4 inches equals 1 hand in measuring horses
1 link equals 7.92 inches
1 rod equals 25 links, 16 1/2 feet
1 chain equals four rods, 66 feet
1 mile equals 80 chains, 5280 feet

QUANTITY OF SEED USED PER ACRE

Alfalfa 8 to 15 lbs. Millet Seed, Missouri 35 to 50 lbs.
Buckwheat 50 to 60 lbs. Millet Seed, German 35 to 50 lbs.
Blue Grass Seed 25 to 40 lbs. Millet Seed, Siberian 20 to 25 lbs.
Barley 95 to 100 lbs. Oats 60 to 70 lbs.
Corn 8 to 11 lbs. Onion Seed 10 to 12 lbs.
Clover Seed, Red 10 to 15 lbs. Onion Sets 10 to 12 lbs.
Clover Seed, Sappling 10 to 15 lbs. Orchard Grass Seed 25 to 35 lbs.
Clover Seed, Alfalfa 15 to 25 lbs. Potatoes, Irish 550 to 650 lbs.
Clover Seed, White 6 to 8 lbs. Red Top Seed in Chaff 25 to 35 lbs.
Clover Seed, Alsike 8 to 10 lbs. Red Top Seed, fancy Solid 10 to 12 lbs.
Cane Seed, Broadcast 50 to 65 lbs. Rye 70 to 90 lbs.
Cane Seed, in Drills 20 to 30 lbs. Stock Peas 50 to 80 lbs.
Hungarian Grass Seed 35 to 50 lbs. Sunflower 8 to 10 lbs.
Flax 55 to 80 lbs. Sweet Clover 10 to 15 lbs.
Hemp 40 to 60 lbs. Timothy Seed 12 to 15 lbs.
Kaffir Corn 60 to 75 lbs. Wheat 75 to 110 lbs.

To Measure Corn in Bins

To find the number of bushels of grain in a bin, multiply the length by the width by the height, thus ascertaining the number of cubic feet, and deduct one-fifth. For instance, a bin containing 10 cubic feet will hold 8 bushels of grain, 8 being four-fifths of 10.

To Measure Ear Corn in a Crib

Ascertain the number of cubic feet and multiply by four, then divide by ten. Most corn in cribs is figured by this rule. However, if the cobs are well filled and the corn is sound and dry and well settled in the crib, divide by 9. If the cobs are not well filled or if the corn is damp or of inferior quality, divide by 11.

Alternative Method of Measuring Corn in Cribs

Ear corn of good quality, measured when settled, will hold out at 2 1/2 cubic feet per bushel. Allowance should be made for snapped corn, corn that is poorly husked, or otherwise inferior in quality, which will hold out at more than 2 1/2 cubic feet per bushel.

Rule - At 2 1/2 feet per cubic bushel, divide the cubic feet in crib by 2 1/2, or multiply by 2 and divide by 5.

Capacity of Round Cribs

Multiply the square of the diameter by 0.7854; that will be the area of the circular floor. Multiply the area of the floor by the height; that will give the number of cubic feet. Total cubic feet multiplied by 4 and divided by 10 will give approximate number of bushels in a round crib or bin.

Water Equivalents Table

1 acre foot 43,560 cubic feet 325,000 gallons

1 acre foot covers 1 acre of land 1 foot deep

1 cfs (cubic foot per second) 450 gpm (gallons per minute)
For 24 hours 1.983 acre ft.
For 30 days 59.50 acre ft.

An end gun emitting water to a height of 25 feet above ground can result in a 25 percent loss of water due to evaporation, and acres under an end gun require 25 percent more water.  A decrease in pivot pressure from 40 to 25 pounds per square inch will increase water use efficiency by 15 to 20 percent.  Irrigating at or near dew point can generate a 10 percent increase in efficiency as opposed to irrigating during the heat of the day.

Correct pipe diameter on a pivot system can effect efficiency by as much as 30 to 35 percent.  Pressure regulators can create a 10 to 20 percent increase by maintaining “proper design pressure.”  Worn or wrong-sized orifices can decrease this pressure, and the best ways to insure “proper design pressure” are the annual pump test and can test. 

Efficient irrigation protects the environment in many ways, including:

1.Reducing non-point water pollution and eliminates sediment, chemical and fertilizer runoff, which has been a major source of non-point pollution historically.

2.Keeping groundwater clean and reduces percolation.

3.Allowing precise application of nutrients, acting as a conduit that delivers nutrients precisely to a plant with no waste.

4.Preventing the erosion of topsoil, resulting in reduced silt deposits that fill our lakes and streams.

5.Preventing soil and water from destructive salt buildups, keeping root zones productive and eliminating salts from entering streams.

6.Distributing untreated animal waste over the land through irrigation systems, filtering the water for return to the environment.