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Rainfall Report

Throughout the growing season, we report weekly rainfall totals for various counties and states. Click this internal link to View Detailed Reports.

Heat Index

As humidity increases, the air temperature feels hotter to your skin. The combination of hot temperatures and high humidity reduces your body's ability to cool itself. For example, the heat you feel when the actual temperature is 90 degrees Fahrenheit with a relative humidity of 70 percent is 106 degrees Fahrenheit.

Temperature
(Fahrenheit)
70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120
Humidity %                      
0 64 69 73 78 83 87 91 95 99 103 107
10 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 111 116
20 66 72 77 82 87 93 99 105 112 120 130
30 67 73 78 84 90 96 104 113 123 135 148
40 68 74 79 86 93 101 110 123 137 151  
50 69 75 81 88 96 107 120 135 150    
60 70 76 82 90 100 114 132 149      
70 70 77 84 93 106 124 144        
80 71 78 86 97 113 136          
90 71 79 88 102 122 150          
100 72 80 90 108 131            

New Windchill Table

On November 1, 2001, the National Weather Service implemented a replacement Wind Chill Temperature index. 

BE ALERT TO FROSTBITE CONDITIONS Exposed skin can freeze within 1 minute at wind-chill equivalent temperatures below -25 degrees Fahrenheit.

Frostbite affects the extremities, such as fingers and toes.
If a body part has been frostbitten once, it is more susceptible to frostbite again, even in milder conditions.
Redness and a burning sensation are indications frostbite will occur unless the extremity is warmed.
Numbness is an indication that frostbite has already taken place.
If frostbite is discovered, hold the affected part tightly against the warm skin or another part of the body; (for example place
frozen fingers under arm).
When thoroughly warmed, keep covered and make an effort to keep area from freezing again.

wind.gif (1671 bytes) 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
40 36 34 32 30 29 28 28 27 26 26 25 25
35 31 27 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 19 18 17
30 25 21 19 17 16 15 14 13 12 12 11 10
25  19 15 13 11 9 8 7 6 5 4 4 3
20  13 9 6 4 3 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -3 -4
15  7 3 0 -2 -4 -5 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 11
10  1 -4 -7 -9 -11 -12 -14 -15 -16 -17 -18 -19
5 -5  -10 -13 -15 -17 -19 -21 -22 -23 -24 -25 -26
0 -11 -16 -19 -22 -24 -26 -27 -29 -30 -31 -32 -33
-5  -16 -22 -26 -29 -31 -33 -34 -36 -37 -38 -39 -40
-10  -22 -28 -32 -35 -37 -39 -41 -43 -44 -45 -46 -48
-15  -28 -35 -39 -42 -44 -46 -48 -50 -51 -52 -54 -55
-20  -34 -41 -45 -48 -51 -53 -55 -57 -58 -60 -61 -62
-25  -40 -47 -51 -55 -58 -60 -62 -64 -65 -67 -68 -69
-30  -46 -53 -58 -61 -64 -67 -69 -71 -72 -74 -75 -76
-35  -52 -59 -64 -68 -71 -73 -76 -78 -79 -81 -82 -84
-40  -57 -66 -71 -74 -78 -80 -82 -84 -86 -88 -89 -91
-45  -63 -72 -77 -81 -84 -87 -89 -91 -93 -95 -97 -98
Frostbite occurs in 15 minutes or less

Beaufort Wind Force Scale

"Used mostly at sea, but of help to all who are interested in weather." 

Admiral Beaufort arranged the numbers 0 to 12 to indicate the strength of the wind from a calm, force 0, to a hurricane, force 12. Following is a scale adapted for land:

Beaufort Force Description When you see This Wind in
MPH
Wind in
Km/h
0 Calm Smoke goes straight up. No Wind. Less than 1 Less than 2
1 Light air Direction of wind shown by smoke drift but not by wind vanes. 1-3 2-5
2 Light breeze Wind felt on face; leaves rustle; weather vane moved by wind. 4-7 6-11
3 Gentle breeze Leaves and small twigs in constant motion. Wind extends light flags straight out. 8-12 12-19
4 Moderate breeze Raises dust and loose paper; small branches move. 13-18 20-29
5 Fresh breeze Small trees sway. Waves form on lakes. 19-24 30-39
6 Strong breeze Large branches move. Wires whistle. Umbrellas are hard to use. 25-31 40-50
7 Moderate Gale Whole trees on motion. Hard to walk against the wind. 32-38 51-61
8 Fresh Gale Twigs break from trees. Very hard to walk against wind. 39-46 62-74
9 Strong Gale Small damage to buildings. Roof shingles are removed. 47-54 75-87
10 Whole Gale Seldom experienced inland; trees uprooted; considerable structural damage occurs. 55-63 88-101
11 Violent storm Widespread damage from wind. 64-72 102-116
12 Hurricane Widespread destruction from wind. 73+ 117+

Rules of Thumb:


If a jet flying overhead doesn’t leave a visible contrail, you can be pretty sure it won’t rain the next day.
Jeff Johnson, Northwest Weathernet, Inc.

To estimate the weight of accumulated snow on a roof, add 6 pounds per square foot for each 12 inches of snow that falls. Add another 6 pounds per square foot for each inch of rain that falls on top of old snow.

Most structures in the Snow Belt are designed to withstand loads of 30 to 40 pounds per square foot.
Penn State Weather Communications Group, University Park, PA

Packed snow begins to squeak underfoot at about 5 degrees Fahrenheit. At 0 degrees Fahrenheit, it squeaks with a distinct hollow sound.
Mark Breen, The Fairbanks Museum, St. Johnsbury, VT

 If it’s snowing hard enough that you can’t use your high beams while driving because the flakes in the air reflect the light back into your eyes, you can figure the snow is accumulating at a rate of about an inch an hour.
Dr. Samuel Colbeck, U.S.Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab, Hanover, NH

Walking a mile through 6 inches of snow takes as much effort as walking 2 miles on bare ground.
Fred Gadomski, Penn State University

 At the middle latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, winds circulate clockwise around a high-pressure system and counter clockwise around a low-pressure system. If the wind is at your back, a high would be at your right and a low would be at your left.
Terry Nathan, UC, Davis

 Watch for bugs when you’re flying in a private plane. The higher you encounter flying insects, the lower the chance of rain. In continuing dry conditions you’ll see bugs as high as 3000 feet mean sea level. If you don’t see bugs above 2000 feet, you should expect an increasing chance of rain.
John Warner

Most storm systems travel 600 miles in a 24-hour period.
National Weather Service

Throughout the northern latitudes of the U.S., for each 300-foot increase in elevation, snow will remain on the ground for another ten days in the spring.
Steve Maleski, The Fairbanks Museum, St, Johnsbury, VT

A brief heavy thunderstorm usually produces about inch of rain. An all day, steady, moderate rain usually leaves about 1 inch of precipitation.
Mark Breen, The Fairbanks Museum, St. Johnsbury, VT

One inch of rain equals about ten inches of snow.
National Weather Service

Hail falls mainly in summer and forms in high thunderstorm clouds. Sleet falls in winter when the air is below freezing on the ground and above freezing aloft. Freezing rain is almost like sleet except that it freezes after it hits the ground.
National Weather Service

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